Optothermally generated surface bubble and its applications
Under laser illumination, a solid-state surface or nanostructure can turn into micro/nano heating source with the so-called optothermal effect. This effect allows for non-invasive control of the heat at the micro/nanoscales. In the presence of liquid, a surface bubble can be generated on top of the solid surface or nanostructure at a temperature much higher than the boiling point of the liquid. The high temperature and the fluid flow associated with the optothermally generated surface bubble enable many intriguing applications ranging from the micro/nano-manipulation of fluids, particles, cells, and light to the synthesis of micro/nano-structures under ambient conditions. In this review article, we present the fundamentals, recent developments, and future perspectives in this emerging field.