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Solubilization of seven hydrophobic pesticides in quaternary ammonium based eco-friendly ionic liquid aqueous systems

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Abstract

In this work, quaternary ammonium based ionic liquids (ILs) are proven to be good candidates to act as green solvents/solubilizers for pesticide formulations. The surface activity of six ionic liquids ([M3CnN]X; M = CH3; n = 10, 12, 14; X = Cl, Br) was tested, along with the corresponding critical aggregation concentration (CAC), lowest surface tension (γCAC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), minimum area per molecule (Amin) and higher adsorption efficiency (pC20), which were measured using several methods, including surface tension measurements, electrical conductivity measurements, steady-state fluorescence measurements and 1H NMR. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization, the viscosities and the activation energies of the six ILs in 30% aqueous solutions, over the temperature range of 288–308 K, were determined and calculated. The results indicated that the solubilities of representative pesticides (metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, prochloraz, acetamiprid and fosthiazate) in different concentrations of these ILs were significantly higher than in pure water, especially for prochloraz (e.g., 137.2 g L−1 in 30% C10Br, 4035 times higher than in pure water). The microenvironment existing between the pesticide and micelle was investigated using 1H NMR techniques, revealing that micelle localization of pesticide molecules and a change in micelle conformation occurred in the dissolving process.

Graphical abstract: Solubilization of seven hydrophobic pesticides in quaternary ammonium based eco-friendly ionic liquid aqueous systems

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 Apr 2017, accepted on 07 Aug 2017 and first published on 08 Aug 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NJ01445G
Citation: New J. Chem., 2017, Advance Article
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    Solubilization of seven hydrophobic pesticides in quaternary ammonium based eco-friendly ionic liquid aqueous systems

    C. Chen, F. Liu, T. Fan, Q. Zhou and Q. Peng, New J. Chem., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7NJ01445G

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