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Issue 16, 2017
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Necessity of calcination in the preparation of phosphotungstic acid@TiO2 composites. A case study on the facile sol–gel synthesis of nanospheres and their superior performance in catalytic oxi-desulfurization

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Abstract

Calcination is considered to be a key step in the process of preparation of titanium dioxide based catalysts; however, it consumes a lot of energy. We describe unequivocally here for the first time that high-energy consuming calcination is a surplus process in the preparation of phosphotungstic acid@titanium dioxide (PW12@TiO2) catalysts with various loadings of phosphotungstic acid (10–40 wt%) for oxidative catalytic reactions. To prove this, a case study on the preparation of PW12@TiO2 nanospheres via the sol–gel procedure is discussed here. The structure and morphology of the nanospheres were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, BET XRD, ICP and SEM analyses. Oxidative desulfurization of a model oil composed of 350 ppmwS dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-octane was investigated using these nanospheres. The results showed that both calcinated and un-calcinated-PW12@TiO2 nanospheres exhibited almost parallel yet excellent oxidative desulfurization performances in the model oil. The 350 ppmwS of sulfur content in 20 mL of n-octane was dropped down to 2.4 and 2.6 ppmwS within 2 hours at 60 °C using 70 mg of calcinated and un-calcinated-PW12@TiO2 nanospheres with 30 wt% PW12 loading, respectively. The high desulfurization efficiency of the catalyst remained unchanged even after the regeneration of the catalyst ten times. This excellent desulfurization performance makes the as-prepared composite without calcination treatment a promising catalyst in practical oxidative desulfurization processes.

Graphical abstract: Necessity of calcination in the preparation of phosphotungstic acid@TiO2 composites. A case study on the facile sol–gel synthesis of nanospheres and their superior performance in catalytic oxi-desulfurization

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Apr 2017, accepted on 06 Jul 2017 and first published on 07 Jul 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NJ01234A
Citation: New J. Chem., 2017,41, 8382-8389
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    Necessity of calcination in the preparation of phosphotungstic acid@TiO2 composites. A case study on the facile sol–gel synthesis of nanospheres and their superior performance in catalytic oxi-desulfurization

    Z. Zuhra, H. Lei, Z. Zhao, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang and L. Qin, New J. Chem., 2017, 41, 8382
    DOI: 10.1039/C7NJ01234A

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