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Proteomic and genetic analysis of the response of S. cerevisiae to soluble copper leads to improvement of the antimicrobial function of cellulosic copper nanoparticles

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Abstract

Copper (Cu) was used in antiquity to prevent waterborne and food diseases because, as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, it generates reactive oxygen species, ROS. New technologies incorporating Cu into low-cost biodegradable nanomaterials built on cellulose, known as cellulosic cupric nanoparticles or c-CuNPs, present novel approaches to deliver Cu in a controlled manner to control microbial growth. We challenged strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with soluble Cu and c-CuNPs to evaluate the potential of c-CuNPs as antifungal agents. Cells exposed to c-CuNPs demonstrated greater sensitivity to Cu than cells exposed to soluble Cu, although Cu-resistant strains were more tolerant than Cu-sensitive strains of c-CuNP exposure. At the same level of growth inhibition, 157 μM c-CuNPs led to the same internal Cu levels as did 400 μM CuSO4, offering evidence for alternative mechanisms of toxicity, perhaps through β-arrestin dependent endocytosis, which was supported by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy of c-CuNPs distributed both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Genes responsible for genetic variation in response to copper were mapped to the ZRT2 and the CUP1 loci. Through proteomic analyses, we found that the expression of other zinc (Zn) transporters increased in Cu-tolerant yeast compared to Cu-sensitive strains. Further, the addition of Zn at low levels increased the potency of c-CuNPs to inhibit even the most Cu-tolerant yeast. Through unbiased systems biological approaches, we identified Zn as a critical component of the yeast response to Cu and the addition of Zn increased the potency of the c-CuNPs.

Graphical abstract: Proteomic and genetic analysis of the response of S. cerevisiae to soluble copper leads to improvement of the antimicrobial function of cellulosic copper nanoparticles

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 May 2017, accepted on 18 Aug 2017 and first published on 18 Aug 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7MT00147A
Citation: Metallomics, 2017, Advance Article
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    Proteomic and genetic analysis of the response of S. cerevisiae to soluble copper leads to improvement of the antimicrobial function of cellulosic copper nanoparticles

    X. Rong-Mullins, M. J. Winans, J. B. Lee, Z. R. Lonergan, V. A. Pilolli, L. M. Weatherly, T. W. Carmenzind, L. Jiang, J. R. Cumming, G. S. Oporto and J. E. G. Gallagher, Metallomics, 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7MT00147A

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