Discovery of a potent protein kinase D inhibitor: insights in the binding mode of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine analogues
In this study, we set out to rationally optimize PKD inhibitors based on the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold. The lead compound for this study was 1-NM-PP1, which was previously found by us and others to inhibit PKD. In our screening we identified one compound (3-IN-PP1) displaying a 10-fold increase in potency over 1-NM-PP1, opening new possibilities for specific protein kinase inhibitors for kinases that show sensitivity towards pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derived compounds. Interestingly the observed SAR was not in complete agreement with the commonly observed binding mode where the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compounds are bound in a similar fashion as PKD's natural ligand ATP. Therefore we suggest an alternate binding mode where the compounds are flipped 180 degrees. This possible alternate binding mode for pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine based compounds could pave the way for a new class of specific protein kinase inhibitors for kinases sensitive towards pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrmidines.