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Isotachophoresis applied to biomolecular reactions

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Abstract

This review discusses research developments and applications of isotachophoresis (ITP) to the initiation, control, and acceleration of chemical reactions, emphasizing reactions involving biomolecular reactants such as nucleic acids, proteins, and live cells. ITP is a versatile technique which requires no specific geometric design or material, and is compatible with a wide range of microfluidic and automated platforms. Though ITP has traditionally been used as a purification and separation technique, recent years have seen its emergence as a method to automate and speed up chemical reactions. ITP has been used to demonstrate up to 14 000-fold acceleration of nucleic acid assays, and has been used to enhance lateral flow and other immunoassays, and even whole bacterial cell detection assays. We here classify these studies into two categories: homogeneous (all reactants in solution) and heterogeneous (at least one reactant immobilized on a solid surface) assay configurations. For each category, we review and describe physical modeling and scaling of ITP-aided reaction assays, and elucidate key principles in ITP assay design. We summarize experimental advances, and identify common threads and approaches which researchers have used to optimize assay performance. Lastly, we propose unaddressed challenges and opportunities that could further improve these applications of ITP.

Graphical abstract: Isotachophoresis applied to biomolecular reactions

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Publication details

The article was received on 10 Aug 2017, accepted on 21 Sep 2017 and first published on 11 Oct 2017


Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/C7LC00852J
Citation: Lab Chip, 2018, Advance Article
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    Isotachophoresis applied to biomolecular reactions

    C. Eid and J. G. Santiago, Lab Chip, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7LC00852J

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