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Metal Organic Frameworks as Catalysts in Solvent-free or Ionic Liquid Assisted Conditions

Abstract

Metal organic frameworks are being intensively studied as solid catalysts for organic reactions in the liquid media. This review focus on those reports in which these materials have been used as catalysts in the absence of solvents or embedding ionic liquids. One of the major roles of solvents in liquid phase reactions is to desorb reaction products from the active sites facilitating the turnover of the active sites. For this reason, it is a general observation that most solid catalysts undergoes strong deactivation and poisoning in the absence of solvents. In the present review, examples are presented showing that, due to their large porosity, framework flexibility and high diffusion coefficients, MOFs can be used as catalysts in the absence of solvent for several reaction types including cyano silylations, condensations, cyloadditions and CO2 insertions, among others, performing even better than in the presence of conventional organic solvents. It is also described the synergy that arises from the combination of ionic liquids, frequently with suitable task-specific chains, and MOFs due to the cooperation to the catalysis when two centres in MOF and ionic liquid are present and the change in the microenvironment of the active sites. By embedding the ionic liquid in the MOF pores or by synthesising the ionic liquid covalently attached to the ligand in satellite positions, reusable and efficient catalysts can be obtained requiring the minimum amount of ionic liquid. Both complementary strategies increase the greenness of MOF as heterogeneous catalysis and have advantages from the environmental point of view.

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Publication details

The article was received on 25 Jul 2017, accepted on 09 Oct 2017 and first published on 09 Oct 2017


Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC02260C
Citation: Green Chem., 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    Metal Organic Frameworks as Catalysts in Solvent-free or Ionic Liquid Assisted Conditions

    A. Dhakshinamoorthy, A. M. Asiri, M. Alvaro and H. Garcia, Green Chem., 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7GC02260C

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