Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Manufacture and application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) and lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs)

Author affiliations

Abstract

Environmental issues and constantly diminishing petroleum resources are considerable barriers inhibiting modernization, and vast efforts have been exerted to address these problems. Carbon fibers (CFs) are carbon materials with high mechanical strength and functionality for applications in construction, electronics, transportation, and aviation. Currently, most CFs are produced from polyacrylonitrile, a petroleum-based, unsustainable, and non-renewable chemical of relatively high price. Interestingly, lignin is an inexpensive, highly accessible, and renewable resource. It has been utilized to fabricate lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs), which have met rapid development during the past two decades. In this review, LCFs are generalized by focusing on their steps of manufacture. Resource types and corresponding pretreatments ensure the processability of spinning and thermal treatments. Fibers are formed via spinning methods, including melt-spinning, wet-spinning, dry-spinning, and electrospinning. The next step is the most significant process of stabilization, in which fibers are oxidized, crosslinked, and thermally stabilized for pyrolysis. Subsequent to carbonization and/or additional processes (activation and graphitization), LCFs are obtained. Each step can influence the terminal performance of LCFs, which is discussed in detail. Recently produced LCFs of sub-micron size, also known as lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs), are detailed. Furthermore, attributed to the excellent performance and low cost of LCFs and LCNFs, they have been applied in various fields, predominantly for electronic devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. Our review is concluded with opinions on the potential for further advancement of this promising material.

Graphical abstract: Manufacture and application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) and lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs)

Back to tab navigation
Please wait while Download options loads

Publication details

The article was received on 21 Nov 2016, accepted on 15 Mar 2017, published on 16 Mar 2017 and first published online on 16 Mar 2017


Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/C6GC03206K
Citation: Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
  •   Request permissions

    Manufacture and application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) and lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs)

    W. Fang, S. Yang, X. Wang, T. Yuan and R. Sun, Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C6GC03206K

Search articles by author