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Prophylactic role of vitamin K supplementation on vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes by regulating the NF-κB/Nrf2 pathway via activating Gla proteins

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Abstract

There is no previous study that has examined the relationship between circulating vitamin K1 (VK1) and vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims to examine the hypothesis that circulating VK1 deficiency may be associated with higher inflammation and insulin resistance in T2D patients and that VK1 supplementation regulates the NF-κB/Nrf2 pathway via activating VK-dependent Gla proteins and reduces vascular inflammation. The results showed that plasma VK1 levels were significantly lower and MCP-1, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in T2D patients compared to those in the controls. The lower levels of VK1 in T2D patients were significantly and inversely correlated with MCP-1 and HOMA-IR, which suggests that VK1 supplementation may reduce the vascular inflammation and insulin resistance in T2D. Using a high fat diet-fed T2D mice model this study further demonstrated that VK1 supplementation (1, 3, 5 μg per kg BW, 8 weeks) dose-dependently decreased the body weight gain, glucose intolerance, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, and cytokine secretion (MCP-1 and IL-6) in T2D mice. Further cell culture studies showed that VK1 supplementation (1, 5, or 10 nM) decreased NF-κB phosphorylation and MCP-1 secretion and increased Nrf2 protein expression in high glucose (HG, 25 mM)-treated monocytes. Signal silencing studies with GGCX siRNA again depicted the role of VK-dependent Gla proteins in mediating the effect of VK1 on vascular inflammation in HG-treated cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that circulating VK1 has a positive effect in lowering vascular inflammation in T2D by regulating NF-κB/Nrf2 transcription factors via activating VK-dependent Gla proteins.

Graphical abstract: Prophylactic role of vitamin K supplementation on vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes by regulating the NF-κB/Nrf2 pathway via activating Gla proteins

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Sep 2017, accepted on 26 Nov 2017 and first published on 27 Nov 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01491K
Citation: Food Funct., 2018, Advance Article
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    Prophylactic role of vitamin K supplementation on vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes by regulating the NF-κB/Nrf2 pathway via activating Gla proteins

    A. Dihingia, D. Ozah, P. K. Baruah, J. Kalita and P. Manna, Food Funct., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01491K

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