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Issue 11, 2017
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Impact of in vitro digestion phases on the stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and their esters in mandarin pulps

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Abstract

The composition of carotenoids (carotenes and free and acylated xanthophylls) and their bioaccessibilities were determined for the first time in pulps of mandarins cultivated in Brazil. Two cultivars of mandarin, Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. ‘Ponkan’ and Citrus reticulata × C. sinensis cv. ‘Murcott’, showed higher contents of most carotenoids compared to those found in C. deliciosa Tenore cv. ‘Rio’. The major carotenoids in mandarin cv. ‘Ponkan’ and ‘Murcott’ were (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin laurate (19–21%), (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin myristate (15–17%) and (Z)-ζ-carotene (7–12%), followed by (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin palmitate (4–7%), free (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin (5–6%) and (all-E)-β-carotene (4–5%), while in mandarin cv. ‘Rio’ (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin myristate (22%) was the major compound, followed by (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin laurate (16%), (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin palmitate (11%), (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin (9%) and (all-E)-β-carotene (6%). After in vitro digestion, the qualitative carotenoid profile of the supernatant containing the micellarized carotenoids was similar to that of fresh fruits, but the contents were significantly lower. Carotenoid and mandarin physico-chemical properties influenced the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. Free (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin showed the highest bioaccessibility in all mandarin cultivars (33–42%), while the bioaccessibilities of β-carotene (16–36%) and the major carotenoid esters (18–33%) were lower. The overall recovery of carotenoids during in vitro digestion was around 98% after the oral phase, 79% after oral + gastric phases and 77% after oral + gastric + duodenal phases, with free (all-E)-β-cryptoxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene being the most stable ones. Besides possible EZ isomerization and ester hydrolysis, evident losses occurred in total carotenoid contents and also in the most individual carotenoids and they were not compensated for by the former reactions.

Graphical abstract: Impact of in vitro digestion phases on the stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and their esters in mandarin pulps

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Publication details

The article was received on 18 Jul 2017, accepted on 09 Sep 2017 and first published on 11 Sep 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01075C
Citation: Food Funct., 2017,8, 3951-3963
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    Impact of in vitro digestion phases on the stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and their esters in mandarin pulps

    F. C. Petry and A. Z. Mercadante, Food Funct., 2017, 8, 3951
    DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01075C

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