Leaf parts from Greek artichoke genotypes as a good source of bioactive compounds and antioxidants
Globe artichoke is an important vegetable for the Mediterranean diet. However, the marketable part of the plant constitutes a small portion of total crop biomass and high amounts of wastes are produced during cultivation. In this study, phenolic compounds content and composition, and antioxidant activity of leaf parts [blades (SLB), petioles and midribs (SPM)] from various Greek artichoke genotypes was evaluated. The results showed significant variation in antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds content between the studied genotypes, with leaf blades of most of the genotypes having a high content in flavonoids (mainly luteolin glycoside derivatives) which ranged between 49 to 78% of total phenolic compounds (TPC). In contrast, in petioles and midribs phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives) were the main phenolic compounds, ranging between 64 to 76% of TPC. Antioxidant activity of blades was significantly higher than petiole and midribs for all the genotypes and the tested assays. In conclusion, artichoke leaves (blades, petioles and midribs) of the studied genotypes showed different bioactive compounds profiles and significant antioxidant properties, and could be further valorized in food and nutraceuticals industry as a cheap source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants.