Enhanced anti-obesity effect and reduced gastric mucosa irritation of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions
Capsaicin (CAP), the major active component of chili peppers, is known to have thermogenetic and weight-loss potentials. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of capsaicin-loaded nanoemulsions (C-NE) on male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated by high-fat diet (HFD). The food grade C-NE was prepared using capsaicin, medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) (Neobee 1053), sucrose stearate S-370, Tween 80 and distilled water with emulsion droplet size of 168 nm and capsaicin loading of 80.4 mg/mL. Results showed that C-NE effectively decreased body weight gain and hypercholesterolemia induced by HFD in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluations of liver and adipose tissue confirmed that C-NE had significant effects on inhibiting diet-induced hepatic steatosis, reducing epididymal adipocyte size and tissue mass. Gastric mucosa irritation test demonstrated that C-NE was effective in alleviating the gastric inflammations caused by free unformulated CAP crystals.