Rice bran constituents: immunomodulatory and therapeutic activities
Rice bran, one of the most abundant and valuable byproducts produced during the rice milling process, is of steadily growing interest in recent years due to its potential health benefits. Evidence is rapidly accumulating for the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals. However, the potential benefits of rice bran are found in several of its bioactive ingredients including oils, polysaccharides, proteins, and micronutrients. In addition, a significant advantage of rice bran is that it contains more than 100 antioxidants and several categories of bioactive phytonutrients, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, B vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals. As an immunomodulator, rice bran has beneficial constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, and oils. Numerous studies also reported that potent antioxidants in rice bran included immune system enhancing compounds, such as phytosterols, polysaccharides, minerals and trace minerals including magnesium, selenium, zinc, vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids and several other phytonutrients. We believe that this review will be a valuable resource for more studies on rice barn as a dietary source.