Tunable and selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol and cyclopentanone over Pt supported on the biomass-derived porous heteroatom doped carbons
The search and exploitation of efficient catalytic systems for selective conversion of furfural into various high value-added chemicals remains a huge challenge of green synthesis in the chemical industry. Here, novel Pt nanoparticles supported on bamboo shoot-derived porous heteroatom doped carbons were designed as highly active catalysts for the controlled hydrogenation of furfural in aqueous media. The porous heteroatom doped carbon supported Pt catalysts were endued with a large surface area with hierarchical porous structure, high content of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities, highly dispersion of Pt nanoparticles, good water dispersibility and the reaction stability. Benefiting from these features, the novel Pt catalysts displayed a high activity and controlled tunable selectivity for furfural hydrogenation to produce furfuryl alcohol and cyclopentanone in water. The product selectivity could be easily modulated by controlling the carbonization temperature of porous heteroatom doped carbon support and reaction conditions (temperature and H2 pressures). At a mild condition (100 oC, 1 MPa H2), furfuryl alcohol was obtained in water with complete conversion of furfural and impressive furfuryl alcohol selectivity of >99% in the presence of Pt/NC-BS-500. Higher reaction temperature in water favored the rearrangement of FFA with Pt/NC-BS-800 as catalyst, which resulted in high cyclopentanone yield of >76% at 150 °C and 3 MPa H2. The surface property and pore structure of heteroatom doped carbon support adjusted by carbonization temperature might determine the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles, carbon support and catalytic reactants in water, which in turn led to a good selectivity control. The effects of different reaction temperatures and reaction times on product selectivity were also explored. Combined with the distribution of reaction products, the reaction mechanism of furfural reduction was proposed.