Unavoidable Food Supply Chain Waste: Acid-free Pectin extraction from Mango Peel via Subcritical water
Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, which compromises 7 – 24 % of total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34 % was achieved from Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised with ATR-IR, TGA and 13C solid NMR to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13C solid NMR, resulting in high DE (> 70 %) for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid –free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes as a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustaianble 21st century.