Synergetic effects of K+ and Mg2+ ion intercalation on the electrochemical and actuation properties of the two-dimensional Ti3C2 MXene
Two-dimensional materials, such as MXenes, are attractive candidates for energy storage and electrochemical actuators due to their high volume changes upon ion intercalation. Of special interest for boosting energy storage is the intercalation of multivalent ions such as Mg2+, which suffers from sluggish intercalation and transport kinetics due to its ion size. By combining traditional electrochemical characterization techniques with electrochemical dilatometry and contact resonance atomic force microscopy, the synergetic effects of the pre-intercalation of K+ ions are demonstrated to improve the charge storage of multivalent ions, as well as tune the mechanical and actuation properties of the Ti3C2 MXene. Our results have important implications for quantitatively understanding the charge storage processes in intercalation compounds and provide a new path for studying the mechanical evolution of energy storage materials.