Photocatalytic CO2 reduction using water as an electron donor by a powdered Z-scheme system consisting of metal sulfide and an RGO–TiO2 composite
CuGaS2, (AgInS2)x–(ZnS)2−2x, Ag2ZnGeS4, Ni- or Pb-doped ZnS, (ZnS)0.9–(CuCl)0.1, and ZnGa0.5In1.5S4 showed activities for CO2 reduction to form CO and/or HCOOH in an aqueous solution containing K2SO3 and Na2S as electron donors under visible light irradiation. Among them, CuGaS2 and Ni-doped ZnS photocatalysts showed relatively high activities for CO and HCOOH formation, respectively. CuGaS2 was applied in a powdered Z-scheme system combining with reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-incorporated TiO2 as an O2-evolving photocatalyst. The powdered Z-scheme system produced CO from CO2 in addition to H2 and O2 due to water splitting. Oxygen evolution with an almost stoichiometric amount indicates that water was consumed as an electron donor in the Z-schematic CO2 reduction. Thus, we successfully demonstrated CO2 reduction of artificial photosynthesis using a simple Z-scheme system in which two kinds of photocatalyst powders (CuGaS2 and an RGO–TiO2 composite) were only dispersed in water under 1 atm of CO2.