Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 3, 2017
Previous Article Next Article

Virus inactivation in stored human urine, sludge and animal manure under typical conditions of storage or mesophilic anaerobic digestion

Author affiliations

Abstract

Viruses represent major disease transmitting agents carried by human excreta and animal manure. Understanding virus inactivation is therefore essential in preventing microbial spread due to inadequate treatment of these materials. Here, we investigated the inactivation kinetics of the single-stranded (ss) RNA phage MS2, DNA phages T4 and ΦX174, and the double-stranded DNA human adenovirus in stored human urine, sludge, and animal manure, at temperatures and pH values typical of storage under naturally occurring conditions or mesophilic anaerobic digestion (<40 °C). The ssRNA phage MS2 was most readily inactivated in all samples compared to the other viruses tested. This is consistent with previous findings in well-controlled buffer solutions of similar composition, where inactivation was found to be governed by bases (NH3, carbonate, hydroxide) that catalyze the transesterification and cleavage of the ssRNA. Correspondingly, MS2 inactivation kinetics in real matrices could be adequately modelled by only taking into account the effects of temperature, pH, carbonate and ammonia on the integrity of ssRNA. DNA viruses were more persistent compared to MS2; however, inactivation in selected sludge and manure samples proceeded at faster rates compared to well-controlled buffer solutions of similar composition. This indicates a contribution of microbial or enzymatic activity to inactivation of DNA viruses. Overall, this study identifies the most important factors contributing to inactivation of viruses in human excreta and manure, and highlights the differences in inactivation kinetics and mechanisms between ssRNA and DNA viruses.

Graphical abstract: Virus inactivation in stored human urine, sludge and animal manure under typical conditions of storage or mesophilic anaerobic digestion

  • This article is part of the themed collection: Sanitation
Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 07 Nov 2016, accepted on 16 Mar 2017 and first published on 17 Mar 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6EW00311G
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2017,3, 492-501
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Virus inactivation in stored human urine, sludge and animal manure under typical conditions of storage or mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    L. Decrey and T. Kohn, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2017, 3, 492
    DOI: 10.1039/C6EW00311G

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements