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UV induced toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) and the protective properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from the Rio Negro Amazon River

Abstract

Electric power and transportation to remote communities in the Amazon Basin is almost entirely derived from use of diesel engines. To increase the fuel efficiency and decrease CO2 emissions, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly used as a diesel fuel additive. The waters of the Rio Negro (Amazon, Brazil) have very low ion concentrations (< 25 μmol L-1), low pH (< pH 4.5) and are high in natural organic matter (>12 mg L-1), all factors which would improve the solubility, dispersibility and bioavailability of CeO2 NPs. Furthermore, high level of ultraviolet (UV) radiation present can activate CeO2 NP given they are known photocatalytic particles. Thus, the release of CeO2 NP into the Amazon environment represents the most likely environment for CeO2 NPs to exert any effect. The goals of this study were to determine 1) if toxicity of CeO2 NPs occurs in vivo using a native species, the cardinal tetra, 2) if sunlight mediates increased toxicity of CeO2 NP and 3) if the natural organic matter (NOM) present in Rio Negro water mitigates or mediates toxicity of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs were found to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in the presence of artificial sunlight. CeO2 NPs also significantly induced gill lipid peroxidation, but only in the presence of artificial sunlight/exposure to UV light. CeO2 NPs and UV light also combined to increase interlamellar cell mass and resulted in pathohistological alternations in gills morphology. The presence of NOM from the Rio Negro (~13-15 mg L-1) reduced, but not necessarily eliminated, these noted effects.

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Publication details

The article was received on 12 Sep 2017, accepted on 03 Dec 2017 and first published on 06 Dec 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7EN00842B
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2017, Accepted Manuscript
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    UV induced toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) and the protective properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from the Rio Negro Amazon River

    Y. Zhang, T. Blewett, A. Val and G. Goss, Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2017, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C7EN00842B

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