Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 5, 2017
Previous Article Next Article

Compatibility issues between electrodes and electrolytes in solid-state batteries

Author affiliations

Abstract

Remarkable success has been achieved in the discovery of ceramic alkali superionic conductors as electrolytes in solid-state batteries; however, obtaining a stable interface between these electrolytes and electrodes is difficult. Only limited studies on the compatibility between electrodes and solid electrolytes have been reported, partially because of the need for expensive instrumentation and special cell designs. Without simple yet powerful tools, these compatibility issues cannot be systematically investigated, thus hindering the generalization of design rules for the integration of solid-state battery components. Herein, we present a methodology that combines density functional theory calculations and simple experimental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis, and electrochemistry to efficiently screen the compatibility of numerous electrode/electrolyte pairs. We systemically distinguish between the electrochemical stability of the solid-state conductor, which is relevant wherever the electrolyte contacts an electron pathway, and the electrochemical stability of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. For the solid electrolyte, we are able to computationally derive an absolute thermodynamic stability voltage window, which is small for Na3PS4 and Na3PSe4, and a larger voltage window which can be kinetically stabilized. The experimental stability, when measured with reliable techniques, falls between these thermodynamic and kinetic limits. Employing a Na solid-state system as an example, we demonstrate the efficiency of our method by finding the most stable system (NaCrO2|Na3PS4|Na–Sn) within a selected chemical space (more than 20 different combinations of electrodes and electrolytes). Important selection criteria for the cathode, electrolyte, and anode in solid-state batteries are also derived from this study. The current method not only provides an essential guide for integrating all-solid-state battery components but can also significantly accelerate the expansion of the electrolyte/electrode compatibility data.

Graphical abstract: Compatibility issues between electrodes and electrolytes in solid-state batteries

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 24 Feb 2017, accepted on 26 Apr 2017 and first published on 26 Apr 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7EE00534B
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2017,10, 1150-1166
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Compatibility issues between electrodes and electrolytes in solid-state batteries

    Y. Tian, T. Shi, W. D. Richards, J. Li, J. C. Kim, S. Bo and G. Ceder, Energy Environ. Sci., 2017, 10, 1150
    DOI: 10.1039/C7EE00534B

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements