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Unprecedented NH2-MIL-101(Al)/n-Bu4NBr system as solvent-free heterogeneous catalyst for efficient synthesis of cyclic carbonates via CO2 cycloaddition

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Abstract

Amine-functionalised framework NH2-MIL-101(Al) was synthesized using a solvothermal and microwave method and characterized by PXRD, FT-IR, TGA, SEM-EDX, and BET surface area analysis. The desolvated framework, in the presence of co-catalyst tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), acted as an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for the solvent-free cycloaddition of carbon dioxide (CO2) with epoxides, affording five-membered cyclic carbonates. Using styrene oxide, the NH2-MIL-101(Al)/TBAB system showed more than 99% conversion, affording 96% yield and 99% selectivity with a turn over frequency of 23.5 h−1. This validated the synergistic effect of the quaternary ammonium salt during CO2 cycloaddition. The catalyst could be recycled at least five times without a noticeable loss in activity, while leaching test showed no leached Al3+ ions throughout the reaction. Thorough analysis of the reaction parameters showed that the optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum yield and highest selectivity were 120 °C and 18 bar of CO2 for 6 h. The outstanding conversion and selectivity were maintained for a range of aliphatic and aromatic epoxides, corroborating the duel benefit of the micro–mesoporous system with amine functionality, which offered easy access for reactant molecules with diverse sizes, and provided inspiration for future CO2 cycloaddition catalytic systems. We also propose a rationalized mechanism for the cycloaddition reaction mediated by NH2-MIL-101(Al) and TBAB based on literature precedent and experimental outcome.

Graphical abstract: Unprecedented NH2-MIL-101(Al)/n-Bu4NBr system as solvent-free heterogeneous catalyst for efficient synthesis of cyclic carbonates via CO2 cycloaddition

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Publication details

The article was received on 06 Oct 2017, accepted on 28 Nov 2017 and first published on 28 Nov 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7DT03754F
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2018, Advance Article
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    Unprecedented NH2-MIL-101(Al)/n-Bu4NBr system as solvent-free heterogeneous catalyst for efficient synthesis of cyclic carbonates via CO2 cycloaddition

    S. Senthilkumar, M. S. Maru, R. S. Somani, H. C. Bajaj and S. Neogi, Dalton Trans., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7DT03754F

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