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Issue 33, 2017
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Enhanced free energy of extraction of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions towards diglycolamide appended calix[4]arene: insights from DFT-D3 and COSMO-RS solvation models

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Abstract

Density functional theory in conjunction with COSMO and COSMO-RS solvation models employing dispersion correction (DFT-D3) has been applied to gain an insight into the complexation of Eu3+/Am3+ with diglycolamide (DGA) and calix[4]arene appended diglycolamide (CAL4DGA) in ionic liquids by studying structures, energetics, thermodynamics and population analysis. The calculated Gibbs free energy for both Eu3+ and Am3+ ions with DGA was found to be smaller than that with CAL4DGA. The entropy of complexation was also found to be reduced to a large extent with DGA compared to complexation with CAL4DGA. The solution phase free energy was found to be negative and was higher for Eu3+ ion. The entropy of complexation was not only found to be further reduced but also became negative in the case of DGA alone. Though the entropy was found to be negative it could not outweigh the high negative enthalpic contribution. The same trend was observed in the solution where the free energy of extraction, ΔG, for Eu3+ ions was shown to be higher than that for Am3+ ions towards free DGA. But the values of ΔG and ΔΔG(= ΔGEu−ΔGAm) were found to be much higher with CAL4DGA (−12.58 kcal mol−1) in the presence of nitrate ions compared to DGA (−1.69 kcal mol−1) due to enhanced electronic interaction and positive entropic contribution. Furthermore, both the COSMO and COSMO-RS models predict very close values of ΔΔΔG (= ΔΔGCAL4DGA − ΔΔGnDGA), indicating that both solvation models could be applied for evaluating the metal ion selectivity. The value of the reaction free energy was found to be higher after dispersion correction. The charge on the Eu and Am atoms for the complexes with DGA and CAL4DGA indicates the charge–dipole type interaction leading to strong binding energy. The present theoretical results support the experimental findings and thus might be of importance in the design of functionalized ligands.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced free energy of extraction of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions towards diglycolamide appended calix[4]arene: insights from DFT-D3 and COSMO-RS solvation models

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 May 2017, accepted on 15 Jul 2017 and first published on 19 Jul 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7DT01949A
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2017,46, 10886-10898
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    Enhanced free energy of extraction of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions towards diglycolamide appended calix[4]arene: insights from DFT-D3 and COSMO-RS solvation models

    Sk. M. Ali, Dalton Trans., 2017, 46, 10886
    DOI: 10.1039/C7DT01949A

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