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Issue 22, 2017
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Extraction behaviour and mechanism of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) by liquid–liquid extraction with an ionic liquid [HBBIm]Br

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Abstract

In this study, a method of one-step separation and recycling of high purity Pd(II) and Pt(IV) using an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-benzimidazolium bromate ([HBBIm]Br), was investigated. The effects of [HBBIm]Br concentration, initial metal concentration, and loading capacity of [HBBIm]Br were examined in detail. It was observed that [HBBIm]Br was a very effective extractant for selectively extracting Pd(II) and precipitating Pt(IV). Through selectively extracting Pd(II) and precipitating Pt(IV), each metal with high purity was separately obtained from mixed Pd(II) and Pt(IV) multi-metal solution. The method of one-step separation of Pd(II) and Pt(IV) is simple and convenient. The anion exchange mechanism between [HBBIm]Br and Pt(IV) was proven through Job's method and FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The coordination mechanism between [HBBIm]Br and Pd(II) was demonstrated via single X-ray diffraction and was found to be robust and distinct, as supported by the ab initio quantum-chemical studies. The crystals of the [PdBr2 ·2BBIm] complex were formed first. Moreover, the influence of the concentrations of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrate on the precipitation of Pt(IV) and extraction of Pd(II) was studied herein. It was found that only the concentration of H+ could inhibit the separation of Pt(IV) because H+ could attract the anion PtCl62−; thus, the exchange (anion exchange mechanism) between the anions PtCl62− and Br was prevented. However, both the concentration of H+ and Cl can obviously inhibit the extraction of Pd(II) because H+ and Cl are the reaction products and increasing their concentration can inhibit the progress of the reaction (coordination mechanism).

Graphical abstract: Extraction behaviour and mechanism of Pt(iv) and Pd(ii) by liquid–liquid extraction with an ionic liquid [HBBIm]Br

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Publication details

The article was received on 30 Mar 2017, accepted on 02 May 2017 and first published on 02 May 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7DT01142C
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2017,46, 7210-7218
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    Extraction behaviour and mechanism of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) by liquid–liquid extraction with an ionic liquid [HBBIm]Br

    W. Liu, Q. Wang, Y. Zheng, S. Wang, Y. Yan and Y. Yang, Dalton Trans., 2017, 46, 7210
    DOI: 10.1039/C7DT01142C

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