Lithium-ion storage properties of a micro/nanosheet-like NaV6O15 anode in aqueous solution
The micromorphologies of NaV6O15 materials synthesized using the hydrothermal method and calcination comprise staggered micro/nanosheet-like shapes. These materials can act as anode active materials in aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (ARLBs). NaV6O15 has a charge transfer resistance of several ohms in the ARLB, which is an order of magnitude smaller than in traditional lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-ion diffusion coefficients at 0.15, −0.21 and −0.65 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) were calculated as 7.3 × 10−9, 3 × 10−12, 7.6 × 10−11 cm2 s−1, respectively, from the Warburg spectrum, which were three orders of magnitude larger than in conventional lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, NaV6O15 materials used in this ARLB have a high energy density of about 134.9 Wh kg−1 at a power of 640 W kg−1. In contrast to traditional LIB behavior, we found that the capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the as-synthesized materials increased with the increasing ARLB discharge current density, which showed potential for this new ARLB system to be applied in the field of large-scale energy storage and power source devices.