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Issue 12, 2017
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Recent progress on upgrading of bio-oil to hydrocarbons over metal/zeolite bifunctional catalysts

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Abstract

Upgrading of bio-oil is of high necessity and popularity in converting biomass to high-quality hydrocarbons (transportation fuels and petrochemicals) to reduce the overall CO2 emissions of fossil based materials. There are hundreds of different oxygenated compounds identified in bio-oil, resulting in a high oxygen content (30% to 50%). This review focuses on recent progress in the upgrading of bio-oil over metal/zeolite bifunctional catalysts, with model compounds and real bio-oil included. Firstly, typical model compounds and corresponding reaction routes are summarized, based upon the composition of the bio-oil and a basic knowledge of chemical reactions. Secondly, careful analyses are conducted on the deoxygenation mechanisms over different metal active centers and acid-catalyzed reactions, such as isomerization and cracking, over zeolitic acid sites, respectively. Moreover, detailed analyses have focused on the effect of metal loadings on zeolites, the effects of zeolitic porosity and acidity on the metal, and their overall effects on reaction activity, selectivity and stability. Thirdly, the fundamental understanding of the interaction between the metal centers and zeolite acid sites in bifunctional catalysts and their influences on complex reaction networks, including deoxygenation and acid-catalyzed reactions, is analyzed. The metal/acid balance may be the key in improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity in the upgrading of bio-oil, which needs further careful design. Finally, the potential challenges and opportunities for the upgrading of bio-oil over metal/zeolite bifunctional catalysts are outlined.

Graphical abstract: Recent progress on upgrading of bio-oil to hydrocarbons over metal/zeolite bifunctional catalysts

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Mar 2017, accepted on 02 May 2017 and first published on 03 May 2017


Article type: Minireview
DOI: 10.1039/C7CY00574A
Citation: Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 2385-2415
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    Recent progress on upgrading of bio-oil to hydrocarbons over metal/zeolite bifunctional catalysts

    Y. Shi, E. Xing, K. Wu, J. Wang, M. Yang and Y. Wu, Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017, 7, 2385
    DOI: 10.1039/C7CY00574A

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