Hypercrosslinked porous polymer materials: design, synthesis, and applications
Hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) are a series of permanent microporous polymer materials initially reported by Davankov, and have received an increasing level of research interest. In recent years, HCPs have experienced rapid growth due to their remarkable advantages such as diverse synthetic methods, easy functionalization, high surface area, low cost reagents and mild operating conditions. Judicious selection of monomers, appropriate length crosslinkers and optimized reaction conditions yielded a well-developed polymer framework with an adjusted porous topology. Post fabrication of the as developed network facilitates the incorporation of various chemical functionalities that may lead to interesting properties and enhance the selection toward a specific application. To date, numerous HCPs have been prepared by post-crosslinking polystyrene-based precursors, one-step self-polycondensation or external crosslinking strategies. The advent of these methodologies has prompted researchers to construct well-defined porous polymer networks with customized micromorphology and functionalities. In this review, we describe not only the basic synthetic principles and strategies of HCPs, but also the advancements in the structural and morphological study as well as the frontiers of potential applications in energy and environmental fields such as gas storage, carbon capture, removal of pollutants, molecular separation, catalysis, drug delivery, sensing etc.