Derivatization and interlaminar debonding of graphite–iron nanoparticle hybrid interfaces using Fenton chemistry
The interfacial debonding of graphite lattices using iron (Fe) nanoparticles and Fenton's reagent is reported, towards the scalable production of few-layer graphene flakes. Acoustic cavitation via a sonochemical route was adapted to produce iron and iron oxide nanoparticles in the graphite matrix. The oxygenated species were introduced into the graphite lattice using a physical method, and then Fenton chemistry was utilized to generate localized hydroxyl radicals at the Fe nanoparticle–graphite interfaces for zipping and self-exfoliation of the defected graphite lattices. The functional groups were found to have been introduced predominately at the periphery of the flake, confirming that the lateral dimension of graphene had not been affected, and at the same time, good dispersion in organic solvents had been achieved. Defect engineering could be modulated at the organic–inorganic hybrid interfaces, in order to control the zipping rate and regulate the degree of functionalization and the lateral dimensions of the graphene sheet.