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Issue 16, 2017
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Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces

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Abstract

Orientation-dependent reactivity and band-bending are evidenced upon Ti deposition (1–10 Å) on polar ZnO(0001)–Zn and ZnO(000[1 with combining macron])–O surfaces. At the onset of the Ti deposition, a downward band-bending was observed on ZnO(000[1 with combining macron])–O while no change occurred on ZnO(0001)–Zn. Combining this with the photoemission analysis of the Ti 2p core level and Zn L3(L2)M45M45 Auger transition, it is established that the Ti/ZnO reaction is of the form Ti + 2ZnO → TiO2 + 2Zn on ZnO(0001)–Zn and Ti + yZnO → TiZnxOy + (yx)Zn on ZnO(000[1 with combining macron])–O. Consistently, upon annealing thicker Ti adlayers, the metallic zinc is removed to leave ZnO(0001)–Zn surfaces covered with a TiO2-like phase and ZnO(000[1 with combining macron])–O surfaces covered with a defined (Ti, Zn, O) compound. Finally, a difference in the activation temperature between the O-terminated (500 K) and Zn-terminated (700 K) surfaces is observed, which is tentatively explained by different electric fields in the space charge layer at ZnO surfaces.

Graphical abstract: Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Dec 2016, accepted on 17 Mar 2017 and first published on 20 Mar 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6CP08595D
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017,19, 10350-10357
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    Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces

    P. Borghetti, Y. Mouchaal, Z. Dai, G. Cabailh, S. Chenot, R. Lazzari and J. Jupille, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 10350
    DOI: 10.1039/C6CP08595D

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