Bioapplications of Renal-clearable Luminescent Metal Nanoparticles
Renal-clearable inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) that hold great potential in the future clinic translations are considered as the next generation of nanomedicines. In the past decade, enormous efforts have been dedicated to the development of renal-clearable NPs with the fascinating optical properties, selective disease-targeting capabilities and low nanotoxicities. The further understanding of the design of renal-clearable luminescent metal NPs and their metabolic behaviors in body is significant to achieve their clinical transition and extend their bioapplications in disease theranostics. In this review, we would discuss the recent synthetic strategies of renal-clearable metal NPs in terms of the considerations of size and composition, surface chemistry and emission wavelength. We would also summarize the current disease-relative applications of these renal-clearable luminescent metal NPs in tumor targeting, kidney disease and antimicrobial investigations after a discussion of their biological behaviors including the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Finally, we provide perspectives on the current challenges and upcoming chances for the renal-clearable luminescent metal NPs.