Flexible and highly interconnected, multi-scale-patterned chitosan porous membrane in-situ produced from mussel-shell to accelerate wound healing
Utilization of underlying mechanisms of biological system is a primary pursue of biomimetics for a primary goal to treat on-going biological process. From tissue engineering perspective, one purpose of biomimetics is to create highly cellular or tissue-favored-environments for bio-defect repair. Marine creatures, such as mussel, have inspired bioengineer to design ideal cellular substrate, strong adhesives, and other bioengineering materials. Here we report a novel mussel shell-derived membrane for wound dressing. Mussel-shell were manufactured in-situ a highly flexible membrane with regularly porous pattern after the direct action of acid (A-shell) followed by base treatment (B-shell). From SEM elegantly patterned polygons with nano-wall (about 710 nm) were presented. Compared with A-shell, the B-shell has more clear and flexible structure. FTIR characterization of structure showed the deacetylation on B-shell. Cellular toxic study was conducted for an optimized processing parameters before in a wound healing model. B-shell significantly closed the wound at an early stage (day 10) followed by complete contraction at later stage (day 21). It was completely consistent with the higher level of α-SMA protein, which accelerates wound contraction in the wound sites. As key index of the integration between host and guest, higher blood vessel density was detected in both A-shell and B-shell groups. The treated shells can improve epidermal migration, the formation of granulation tissue, neovascular and hair follicles, and reducing scar tissue. Our mussel shell-derived membrane could have potential as a wound dressing and other biomedical uses.