Nanotechnology-based analytical approaches for detection of viruses
The risks posed by viral diseases have been recognised as critical threats to mankind. On the other hand, using nanotechnology approaches, viruses are used as tools and building blocks for electronics, chemistry, and biomedical science. Virus-based nanotechnology is benefiting from the natural circulatory and targeting properties of viruses in order to design drugs and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest in vivo. This review details the exploitation of nanomaterials for the detection of viruses in general, with a focus on four of the most common and damaging viruses, namely influenza, hepatitis, HIV, and dengue. As the principles behind the techniques used in the area of detection and analysis are interconnected with the principles used in some other areas, the review also outlines the use of viral nanoparticles as nanocarriers for targeted delivery as well as their utilization in nanomaterial engineering.