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Issue 13, 2017
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Exploiting the biomimetic and luminescence properties of multivalent dendrimer–semiconductor nanohybrid materials in the ultra-low level determination of folic acid

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Abstract

In view of the enhanced generation of folate receptors in cancerous cells and diseases linked to the deficiency of folic acid, such as anemia, mental devolution, congenital malformation, etc., the development of a simple method for the ultra-sensitive determination of folic acid remains a long-standing issue for practical applications in medicine and biotechnology. Thus, the proposed luminescence based strategy involving multifunctional poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer encapsulated quantum dots (QDs) as a probe provides a simple, fast and efficient method for the selective determination of folic acid at the nano-molar level. Absorption and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy provide evidence of the binding of folic acid with dendrimer amine groups. The emission quenching of dendrimer encapsulated CdS QDs follows a linear Stern–Volmer plot with an exceedingly high value of the Stern–Volmer constant (KSV = 8.4 × 106 M−1) facilitating a higher detection efficiency. Similar quenching analysis with dendrimer-ZnS QDs showed a slightly lower Stern–Volmer constant (KSV = 2.29 × 106 M−1). The lower probing efficiency of the protein or amino acid capping of QDs has been explained through zeta potential measurements. The solvent polarity dependence suggests a charge transfer process responsible for the emission quenching of CdS QDs, which is static in nature as revealed by lifetime measurements. The determination of folic acid at this low level is not affected by possible interfering molecules, such as vitamin C, vitamin B12 and uric acid. Calorimetric measurements showed that the exothermic binding of folic acid with a dendrimer follows enthalpy–entropy compensation. The detailed mechanistic aspect of interactions of folic acid with the QD probe helps in a better understanding of the detection process, which in turn can assist in developing a dendrimer based material for image analysis and drug delivery in folate receptor rich cells.

Graphical abstract: Exploiting the biomimetic and luminescence properties of multivalent dendrimer–semiconductor nanohybrid materials in the ultra-low level determination of folic acid

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Oct 2016, accepted on 05 May 2017 and first published on 12 May 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6AN02284G
Citation: Analyst, 2017,142, 2491-2499
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    Exploiting the biomimetic and luminescence properties of multivalent dendrimer–semiconductor nanohybrid materials in the ultra-low level determination of folic acid

    S. Kundu, S. Maiti, T. K. Das, D. Ghosh, C. N. Roy and A. Saha, Analyst, 2017, 142, 2491
    DOI: 10.1039/C6AN02284G

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