Effects of nilotinib on leukaemia cells using vibrational microspectroscopy and cell cloning
Over the last few years, both synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies have helped to better understand the effects of drugs on cancer cells. However, cancer is a mixture of cells with different sensitivity/resistance to drugs. Furthermore, the effects of drugs on cells produce both chemical and morphological changes, the latter could affect the spectra of cells incubated with drugs. Here, we successfully cloned sensitive and resistant leukaemia cells to nilotinib, a drug used in the management of leukaemia. This allowed both the study of a more uniform population and the study of sensitive and resistant cells prior to the addition of the drug with both S-FTIR and Raman microspectroscopies. The incubation with nilotinib produced changes in the S-FTIR and Raman spectra of both sensitive and resistant clones to nilotinib. Principal component analysis was able to distinguish between cells incubated in the absence or presence of the drug, even in the case of resistant clones. The latter would confirm that the spectral differences between the so-called resistant clonal cells prior to and after adding a drug might reside on those more or less sensitive cells that have been able to remain alive when they were collected to be studied with S-FTIR or Raman microspectroscopies. The data presented here indicate that the methodology of cell cloning can be applied to different types of malignant cells. This should facilitate the identification of spectral biomarkers of sensitivity/resistance to drugs. The next step would be a better assessment of sensitivity/resistance of leukaemia cells from patients which could guide clinicians to better tailor treatments to each individual patient.