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Issue 103, 2016, Issue in Progress
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Copper-modified TS-1 catalyzed hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant

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Abstract

Herein, TS-1, Cu incorporated TS-1 (Cu–TS-1) and TS-1 supported with different Cu contents (Cu/TS-1-x) are synthesized. The resultant catalyst samples are characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption (N2-adsorption), inductive coupling plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (UV-vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and studied in the hydroxylation of phenol using H2O2 as the oxidant. The results reveal that the framework Ti content and particle diameter of the Cu/TS-1-x samples are almost the same as the untreated TS-1 sample, and that active Cu2+ species exist on the catalyst surface. However, the framework Ti of the Cu–TS-1 sample is lost and its particle size increases. This feature may be attributed to the fact that a small amount of Cu species is introduced into the TS-1 framework, which inhibits the formation of framework Ti. Furthermore, the Cu/TS-1-2 catalyst exhibits the best catalytic activity due to the existence of framework Ti and Cu2+ species which can promote the conversion of phenol. Furthermore, the phenol conversion of 49.77% and diphenol selectivity of 99.28% are obtained when phenol hydroxylation is carried out at 353 K for 3 h over this catalyst.

Graphical abstract: Copper-modified TS-1 catalyzed hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Aug 2016, accepted on 08 Oct 2016 and first published on 10 Oct 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6RA20980G
Citation: RSC Adv., 2016,6, 101071-101078
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    Copper-modified TS-1 catalyzed hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant

    G. Wu, J. Xiao, L. Zhang, W. Wang, Y. Hong, H. Huang, Y. Jiang, L. Li and C. Wang, RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 101071
    DOI: 10.1039/C6RA20980G

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