Direct growth of few layer graphene on SiO2 substrate by low energy carbon ion implantation
A simple method that enables the direct fabrication of few layer graphene on SiO2/Si substrates by implantation of C ions is explored. The C ions of 80 keV with the fluencies of 1.2 to 2 × 1016 ions per cm2 were implanted under the high vacuum directly onto the 200 nm thick Ni film deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. The growth proceeds via the dissolution of C atoms into bulk Ni film that diffuse out towards both sides of Ni surface and pushing the C atoms to precipitate out by rapid annealing and cooling. As a result, the graphene growth takes place both on the top of the Ni film and at the interface of Ni/SiO2 film. This direct synthesis of the graphene on SiO2 is achieved by etching out the top Ni film. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations provide an evidence of strong resilience of the graphene to ion implantation. These results demonstrate that the feasibility C ion implantation technique is a viable route to define graphene directly on insulating substrates with controlled thickness for electronic device applications.