Supramolecular metalloglycodendrimers selectively modulate lectin binding and delivery of Ru(II) complexes into mammalian cells
A host–guest interaction between Ru(II)-complexes and sugar-capped β-cyclodextrin was employed to synthesize metalloglycodendrimers. These glycodendrimers demonstrated selective carbohydrate–protein interactions and controlled the delivery of the Ru(II) complexes into cancer cells, which may facilitate cell-specific apoptosis. Lectin binding assay revealed micromolar range IC50 values with different plant lectins. Cell viability assay and confocal imaging studies of Ru(II) complexes exhibited cytotoxic activities in cancer cells compared to normal cells with IC50 values close to other literature Ru(II) complexes. The cell death inducer was found to accumulate favorably to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induced ER stress in cells. The upregulation of CHOP, caspase-3 and caspase-12 disturbed the ER morphology initiating the apoptosis pathway.