Tuning of the photoluminescence and up-conversion photoluminescence properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical functionalization
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were subjected to alkylation using alkyl bromide and alkyl dibromide, and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the resulting alkylated SWNTs were characterized. Two new PL peaks were observed along with the intrinsic PL peak at 976 nm when alkyl bromide was used (SWNT-Bu: ∼1095 and 1230 nm, SWNT-Bn: 1104 and 1197 nm). In contrast, the use of α,α′-dibromo-o-xylene as an alkyl dibromide primarily resulted in only one new PL peak, which was observed at 1231 nm. The results revealed that the Stokes shift of the new peaks was strongly influenced by the addition patterns of the substituents. In addition, the time-resolved PL decay profiles of the alkylated SWNTs revealed that the PL peaks possessing a larger Stokes shift had longer exciton lifetimes. The up-conversion PL (UCPL) intensity of the alkylated SWNTs at excitation wavelengths of 1100 and 1250 nm was estimated to be ∼2.38 and ∼2.35 times higher than that of the as-dispersed SWNTs, respectively.