Wild Fragaria vesca L. fruits: a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals
Wild Fragaria vesca L. fruits were studied regarding nutritional and phytochemical compounds, and also antioxidant, antibacterial and biofilm formation inhibition activities. The fruits are good sources of carbohydrates (e.g., sucrose), soluble dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic and linolenic acids, as well as other components such as citric and succinic acids, and vitamins B9 and E (mainly γ-tocopherol). Significant amounts of soluble sugars, citric acid and some amounts of ascorbic acid, vitamins B9 and E (only α-tocopherol) were found also in the infusions. The hydromethanolic extracts revealed higher amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly ellagic acid derivatives and dihydroflavonol taxifolin-3-O-arabinofuranoside. Consistently, these extracts also showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activities than the infusions, and were able to inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilms. Despite the lower content of bioactive compounds in the infusions compared to the fruits, both forms could be potentially applied in functional foods and/or nutraceuticals/pharmaceutical formulations.