Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 3, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models

Author affiliations

Abstract

In this work, we investigated lipid oxidation of cod liver oil during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion using two types of in vitro digestion models. In the first type of model, we used human GI juices, while we used digestive enzymes and bile from porcine origin in the second type of model. Human and porcine models were matched with respect to factors important for lipolysis, using a standardized digestion protocol. The digests were analysed for reactive oxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE) by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS), and for free fatty acids (FFA) obtained during the digestion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The formation of the oxidation products MDA, HHE, and HNE was low during the gastric digestion, however, it increased during the duodenal digestion. The formation of the oxidation products reached higher levels when digestive juices of human origin were used (60 μM of MDA, 0.96 μM of HHE, and 1.6 μM of HNE) compared to when using enzymes and bile of porcine origin (9.8, and 0.36 μM of MDA; 0.16, and 0.026 μM of HHE; 0.23, and 0.005 μM of HNE, respectively, in porcine models I and II). In all models, FFA release was only detected during the intestinal step, and reached up to 31% of total fatty acids (FA). The findings in this work may be of importance when designing oxidation oriented lipid digestion studies.

Graphical abstract: Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models

Back to tab navigation
Please wait while Download options loads

Publication details

The article was received on 04 Nov 2015, accepted on 18 Jan 2016 and first published on 20 Jan 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01332A
Citation: Food Funct., 2016,7, 1401-1412
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
  •   Request permissions

    Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models

    C. Tullberg, K. Larsson, N. Carlsson, I. Comi, N. Scheers, G. Vegarud and I. Undeland, Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1401
    DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01332A

Search articles by author