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Issue 3, 2016
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The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins

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Abstract

Procyanidins (PAs) are polyphenols in plant food that have many health benefits, including cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection and diabetes prevention. PAs have been known to have low oral bioavilability. In this review, we summarize the published results on the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of PAs in vivo and in vitro. After oral administration, in the stomach the decomposition of PAs is highly dependent on the pH value of gastric juice, which is also affected by food intake. In the small intestine, PA polymers and oligomers with DP > 4 are not directly absorbed in vivo, but minor PA monomers and dimers could be detected in the plasma. Methylated and glucuronidated PA dimers and monomers are the main metabolites of PAs in plasma. In the colon, PAs are catabolized by colonic microflora into a series of low molecular weight phenolic acids, such as phenyl valerolactone, phenylacetic acids and phenylpropionic acids. We reviewed the degradation of PAs in gastric digestion, the absorption of PAs in the small intestine and the metabolic pathway of PAs by colonic microflora. To clearly explain the in vivo pharmacokinetics of PAs, a systematic comparative analysis on previously published data on PAs was conducted.

Graphical abstract: The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Oct 2015, accepted on 15 Jan 2016 and first published on 15 Jan 2016


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01244A
Citation: Food Funct., 2016,7, 1273-1281
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    The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins

    L. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. Li, C. Ho, J. Li and X. Wan, Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1273
    DOI: 10.1039/C5FO01244A

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