A review of recent developments in graphene-enabled membranes for water treatment
Graphene based materials, including graphene and derivatives such as graphene oxide, have considerable potential as key components in next-generation membrane technologies. Their tunable size, surface chemistry, and structure can be engineered for a spectrum of aqueous filtration purposes ranging from ultrafiltration to reverse osmosis. Among a number of recently developed advanced graphene-enabled membranes, monolayer nanoporous graphene membranes, graphene oxide membranes, and polymeric membranes incorporated with graphene oxide (graphene oxide as nanoscale, material fillers), are currently considered to be the most promising. In this review, the most recent advancements in the development of these three types of membranes are described and discussed, followed by opportunities and challenges presented for graphene-enabled separation technologies. Finally, we conclude the article by providing our perspectives on commercialization potentials based on current technological readiness and cost levels for these graphene-based membranes.