Nanostructured positive electrode materials for post-lithium ion batteries
Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering in the past several decades. Considerable efforts on nanostructured electrode materials have been made in recent years to fulfill the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage. Compared to bulk materials, most of these nanostructured electrode materials improve the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of electrochemical reactions for achieving high energy and power densities. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art research activities in the area of nanostructured positive electrode materials for post-lithium ion batteries, including Li–S batteries, Li–Se batteries, aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries, Li–O2 batteries, Na-ion batteries, Mg-ion batteries and Al-ion batteries. These future rechargeable battery systems may offer increased energy densities, reduced cost, and more environmental benignity. A particular focus is directed to the design principles of these nanostructured positive electrode materials and how nanostructuring influences electrochemical performance. Moreover, the recent achievements in nanostructured positive electrode materials for some of the latest emerging rechargeable batteries are also summarized, such as Zn-ion batteries, F- and Cl-ion batteries, Na–, K– and Al–S batteries, Na– and K–O2 batteries, Li–CO2 batteries, novel Zn–air batteries, and hybrid redox flow batteries. To facilitate further research and development, some future research trends and directions are finally discussed.