Functionalized nonporous silica nanoparticles as carriers for Pt(IV) anticancer prodrugs
Nonporous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with an external shell containing primary amino groups were proposed as potential delivery systems for Pt(IV) antitumor prodrugs. Spherical SNPs containing two different external arms, i.e. 3-aminopropyl and N-(6-aminohexyl)aminomethylene, of around 125 nm hydrodynamic diameter were loaded with two different cisplatin-based Pt(IV) complexes, namely (OC-6-44)-diamminedichloridoethoxidosuccinatoplatinum(IV) and (OC-6-44)-diamminedichloridoacetylamidosuccinatoplatinum(IV), through the formation of amide bonds between the pendant amino groups on SNPs and the free carboxylic group of the complexes. In the presence of the N-(6-aminohexyl)aminomethylene arm, the Pt(IV)–SNP conjugates showed a negligible (unwanted) Pt release by hydrolysis, whereas in the presence of ascorbic acid the reduction of Pt(IV) → Pt(II) caused the substantial release of the active metabolite cisplatin. Conjugate Pt(IV)–SNP exhibited better antiproliferative activity on the Pt-sensitive A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line than the parent cisplatin and their free Pt(IV) precursors, due to their more efficient cellular uptake, likely by endocytosis.