Dehalogenation of chloroalkanes by nickel(I) porphyrin derivatives, a computational study
The nickel(I) octaethylisobacteriochlorin anion ([OEiBCh-Ni(I)]−) is commonly used as a synthetic model of cofactor F430 from Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase. In this regard, experimental studies show that [OEiBCh-Ni(I)]− can catalyze dehalogenation of aliphatic halides in DMF solution by a highly efficient SN2 reaction. To better understand this process, we constructed theoretical models of the dehalogenation of chloromethane by a simple nickel(I) isobacteriochlorin anion and compared its reactivity with that of similar Ni(I) complexes with other porphyrin-derived ligands: porphyrin, chlorin, bactreriochlorin, hexahydroporphyrin and octahydroporphyrin. Our calculations predict that all of the porphyrin derivative's model reactions proceed through low-spin complexes. Relative to the energy of the separate reactants the theoretical activation energies (free-energy barriers with solvation corrections) for the dehalogenation of chloromethane are similar for all of the porphyrin derivatives and range for the different functionals from 10–15 kcal mol−1 for B3LYP to 5–10 kcal mol−1 for M06-L and to 13–18 kcal mol−1 for ωB97X-D. The relative free energies of the products of the dehalogenation step, L-Ni–Me adducts, have a range from −5 to −40 kcal mol−1 for all functionals; generally becoming more negative with increasing saturation of the porphyrin ligand. Moreover, no significant differences in the theoretical chlorine kinetic isotope effect were discernable with change of porphyrin ligand.