Alternative synthetic approaches for metal–organic frameworks: transformation from solid matters
Developing economic and sustainable synthetic strategies for metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is imperative for promoting MOF materials into large scale industrial use. Very recently, an alternative strategy for MOF synthesis by using solvent-insoluble “solid matters” as cation reservoirs and/or templates has been developed to accomplish this goal, in which the solid matters often refer to metals, metal oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and so forth, but excluding the soluble metal salts which have been prevailingly used in MOF synthesis. Although most of the pioneering activities in this field have just started in the past 5 years, remarkable achievements have been made covering the synthesis, functionalization, positioning, and applications. A great number of MOFs in powder form, thin-films, or membranes, have been prepared through such solid-to-MOF transformations. This field is rapidly developing and expanding, and the number of related scientific publications has strikingly increased over the last few years. The aim of this review is to summarise the latest developments, highlight the present state-of-the-art, and also provide an overview for future research directions.