Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance upgrade on Thursday 4th of May 2017 from 8.00am to 9.00am (BST).

During this time our websites will be offline temporarily. If you have any questions please use the feedback button on this page. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 28, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Rapid, high-throughput, and quantitative determination of orange juice adulteration by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

Author affiliations

Abstract

Orange juice is a hugely popular, widely consumed, and high price commodity typically traded in a concentrate form making it highly susceptible to adulteration. It has been consistently shown to be one of the leading food categories of reported cases of food fraud. One of the many forms of adulteration is dilution which can then be disguised with sugar solutions, or juices from other fruits or vegetables, which mimic the natural fruit sugars in this juice. Here, we demonstrate Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as a rapid, high-throughput and quantitative method for the determination of orange juice adulteration. Initial experiments involved the simple adulteration of pure orange juice with 0.5–20.0% water disguised with glucose, fructose or sucrose individually. This was followed by more complex mixtures of these three sugars at appropriate concentrations found in freshly prepared orange juice established using GC-MS; a total of 41 samples were prepared and all experiments undertaken in triplicate. Principal components-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) was undertaken on raw spectral data followed by partial least squares regression (PLSR) for quantification of the level of adulteration. Results from these chemometric analyses showed that infrared spectra contained information allowing for the discrimination and quantification between the three naturally occurring sugars in orange juice to disguise adulteration via dilution. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that FT-IR in combination with PLSR is able to predict the levels of adulteration with excellent accuracy; the typical error on these predictions for test samples was 1.7%. We believe that the further development of these and other rapid methods could have an important role to play in the area of food authenticity and integrity, and food analysis in general.

Graphical abstract: Rapid, high-throughput, and quantitative determination of orange juice adulteration by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

Back to tab navigation
Please wait while Download options loads

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 23 May 2016, accepted on 09 Jun 2016 and first published on 10 Jun 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6AY01480A
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2016,8, 5581-5586
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Rapid, high-throughput, and quantitative determination of orange juice adulteration by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    D. I. Ellis, J. Ellis, H. Muhamadali, Y. Xu, A. B. Horn and R. Goodacre, Anal. Methods, 2016, 8, 5581
    DOI: 10.1039/C6AY01480A

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author