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Issue 33, 2015
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Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

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Abstract

As a droplet impacts upon a granular substrate, both the intruder and the target undergo deformation, during which the liquid may penetrate into the substrate. These three aspects together distinguish it from other impact phenomena in the literature. We perform high-speed, double-laser profilometry measurements and disentangle the dynamics into three aspects: the deformation of the substrate during the impact, the maximum spreading diameter of the droplet, and the penetration of the liquid into the substrate. By systematically varying the impact speed and the packing fraction of the substrate, (i) the substrate deformation indicates a critical packing fraction ϕ* ≈ 0.585; (ii) the maximum droplet spreading diameter is found to scale with a Weber number corrected by the substrate deformation; and (iii) a model of the liquid penetration is established and is used to explain the observed crater morphology transition.

Graphical abstract: Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

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Publication details

The article was received on 22 Apr 2015, accepted on 22 Jun 2015 and first published on 22 Jun 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00957J
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: Soft Matter, 2015,11, 6562-6568
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    Raindrop impact on sand: a dynamic explanation of crater morphologies

    S. Zhao, R. de Jong and D. van der Meer, Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 6562
    DOI: 10.1039/C5SM00957J

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