Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance upgrade on Thursday 4th of May 2017 from 8.00am to 9.00am (BST).

During this time our websites will be offline temporarily. If you have any questions please use the feedback button on this page. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 11, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

On the translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides between blood and peripheral locations in chronic, inflammatory diseases: the central roles of LPS and LPS-induced cell death

Author affiliations

Abstract

We have recently highlighted (and added to) the considerable evidence that blood can contain dormant bacteria. By definition, such bacteria may be resuscitated (and thus proliferate). This may occur under conditions that lead to or exacerbate chronic, inflammatory diseases that are normally considered to lack a microbial component. Bacterial cell wall components, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative strains, are well known as potent inflammatory agents, but should normally be cleared. Thus, their continuing production and replenishment from dormant bacterial reservoirs provides an easy explanation for the continuing, low-grade inflammation (and inflammatory cytokine production) that is characteristic of many such diseases. Although experimental conditions and determinants have varied considerably between investigators, we summarise the evidence that in a great many circumstances LPS can play a central role in all of these processes, including in particular cell death processes that permit translocation between the gut, blood and other tissues. Such localised cell death processes might also contribute strongly to the specific diseases of interest. The bacterial requirement for free iron explains the strong co-existence in these diseases of iron dysregulation, LPS production, and inflammation. Overall this analysis provides an integrative picture, with significant predictive power, that is able to link these processes via the centrality of a dormant blood microbiome that can resuscitate and shed cell wall components.

Graphical abstract: On the translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides between blood and peripheral locations in chronic, inflammatory diseases: the central roles of LPS and LPS-induced cell death

Back to tab navigation
Please wait while Download options loads

Publication details

The article was received on 08 Jun 2015, accepted on 27 Aug 2015 and first published on 01 Sep 2015


Article type: Perspective
DOI: 10.1039/C5IB00158G
Citation: Integr. Biol., 2015,7, 1339-1377
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    On the translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides between blood and peripheral locations in chronic, inflammatory diseases: the central roles of LPS and LPS-induced cell death

    D. B. Kell and E. Pretorius, Integr. Biol., 2015, 7, 1339
    DOI: 10.1039/C5IB00158G

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author