Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 2, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Development and field testing of a miniaturized sampling system for simultaneous sampling of vapours and droplets

Author affiliations

Abstract

The sampling of semi volatiles (SV) in workplaces may lead to different results as measurements may be affected by sampling bias. The new European Standard EN 13936 defines “semi-volatiles” as substances with vapour pressures in the range between 0.001 and 100 Pa at room temperature. EN 13936 regulates the basic requirements for SV compounds that can occur as vapour and particle at the same time. Vapour and particles shall not be sampled separately and particles have to be sampled as inhalable fraction. Following EN 13936, the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Institut für Arbeitsschutz – IFA) has developed a miniaturized droplet–vapour sampler (GGP-Mini) which is designed to sample the inhalable aerosol fraction at low flow rates. The GGP-Mini uses 13 mm filters for particle sampling combined with adsorption tubes for vapour sampling. Laboratory tests were performed on 11 polar and non-polar compounds in a boiling point range from 188 °C to 318 °C. The substances were spiked directly on the filter followed by aspiration of 40 litres of air. Substances with boiling points below 230 °C were almost completely evaporated. Substances with boiling points above 230 °C up to 300 °C were found on both filter and charcoal tube. Lower-volatile compounds remained almost completely on the filter. For polar substances, the atmospheric humidity had a considerable influence upon the distribution of the liquid and vaporous components. A strong influence of the sampling temperature was found in the range from 0 °C to 50 °C. Droplet–vapour mixtures of n-hexadecane and diethylene glycol with droplet sizes between 1 μm and 4 μm were generated in a flow tube to verify the laboratory results. The aerosol concentrations were analysed on-line with a particle sizer and a flame ionisation detector, while parallel off-line samples were taken with the GGP-Mini. Evaporation losses from filters could be studied by comparing the on-line with off-line measurements. All sampling simulations, both spiking and tests on a droplet aerosol, have shown that the distribution between vapour and droplets is not constant and influenced e. g. by volatility, concentration, temperature and humidity. Only the sum of vapour and droplets constitutes a reproducible result.

Graphical abstract: Development and field testing of a miniaturized sampling system for simultaneous sampling of vapours and droplets

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 10 Nov 2014, accepted on 09 Dec 2014 and first published on 09 Dec 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00602J
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015,17, 278-287
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Development and field testing of a miniaturized sampling system for simultaneous sampling of vapours and droplets

    D. Breuer, G. C. Dragan, C. Friedrich, C. Möhlmann and R. Zimmermann, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2015, 17, 278
    DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00602J

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements