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Issue 9, 2015
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Understanding the relative binding ability of hydroxyfullerene to divalent and trivalent metals

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Abstract

Metal contamination of water is a serious challenge faced by environmental chemists, but there is also economic value in the removal of metals for recycling or extraction. Our prior observation that hydroxyfullerenes [C60Ox(OH)y]n act as chelate agents to Fe3+ suggests that these material, or derivatives, may be used for co-precipitation. We report the removal of main group (Al3+, Ag+, Ca2+, and Zn2+) as well transition metal (Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+) and lanthanide (La3+ and Nd3+) ions from solution. The resulting complexes have been characterized by XPS, SEM, TEM, and DLS. The competitive binding with Fe3+ shows that the binding affinity with hydroxyfullerenes follows the order: Zn2+ > Co2+ > Mn2+ > Ni2+ > La3+ > Nd3+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ag+ > Ca2+ > Fe3+ > Al3+. The relative binding ability is dependent on ionic radius; however, divergent trends are observed for M2+ and M3+, i.e., for divalent ions the binding is stronger for smaller ions, while the opposite trend is observed for trivalent ions. Previously the coordination of hydroxyfullerene to metals was assumed to be analogous to a 1,2-diol or catechol. However, while ab initio calculations using [M(catecholate)n]n (n = 2, 3) provide an explanation of the observed trend for M2+, the use of ciscis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol and cis-1,3-cyclohexanediol as model ligands provides insight into the relative binding efficiency for M3+.

Graphical abstract: Understanding the relative binding ability of hydroxyfullerene to divalent and trivalent metals

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Publication details

The article was received on 03 Nov 2014, accepted on 26 Jan 2015 and first published on 26 Jan 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4DT03376K
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2015,44, 4380-4388
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    Understanding the relative binding ability of hydroxyfullerene to divalent and trivalent metals

    J. Heimann, L. Morrow, R. E. Anderson and A. R. Barron, Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 4380
    DOI: 10.1039/C4DT03376K

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